Kidney Stones: Symptoms and Types

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July 26, 2023

Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. Kidney stones usually originate in your kidneys. However, they can develop anywhere along your urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.

Types of kidney stones

Kidney stones have different sizes, shapes and colors. Some are like grains of sand, while in rare cases others can grow to the size of a small ball.

The four main types of kidney stones are:

  • Calcium stones- The most common type of kidney stone, caused by too much oxalate in the urine.
  • Struvite stones –often horn-shaped and large, they contain magnesium and ammonia.
  • Uric acid stones – usually softer than other types of stones.
  • Cystine stones – often yellow and resemble crystals rather than stones.


Some symptoms of kidney stones are:

  • Severe pain in the sides and back
  • Pain radiating to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain on urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present
  • Urinating small amounts

These Symptoms usually occur if the kidney stone:

  • gets stuck in your kidney
  • starts to travel down the ureter (the tube that attaches each kidney to the bladder) – the ureter is narrow and kidney stones can cause pain as they try to pass through 
  • causes an infection

I will be talking further about kidney stones in the upcoming blog. Stay connected.

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